Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is second number of the "Nitrogen family" with group number 15 and period number 3


Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus Atomic Number : 15
Phosphorus Atomic Mass : 31
Phosphorus Electronic Configuration : [Ne]3s23p3
Phosphorus Group Number : 15 (V A)
Phosphorus Period Number : 3
Phosphorus Relative Abundance : 11

Phosphorus is second number of the "Nitrogen family" with group number 15 and period number 3. Phosphorus is mostly used in match industry.

Occurence of Phosphorus

phosphorus being an active element, it is not found free in nature. Phosphorus occurs as phosphate in the rocks and in the soil.
The important minerals of phosphorus are

  1. Phosphorite - Ca3(PO4)2

  2. Flourapatite - 3Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2

  3. Chlorapatite - 3Ca3(PO4)2.CaCl2

Other than this, phosphorus is essential constituent of bones, teeth etc. Bone ash contains about 80% of calcium phosphate.

Properties of Phosphorus:

  1. Phosphorus is a non-metal.

  2. Phosphorus though a solid can also convert easily into vapour state.

  3. The atomic radius of phosphorus (1.10) is higher than nitrogen (0.74) and lower than the rest of the family members

  4. The first ionisation energy of phosphoprus (253.9 kcal) is lower than nitrogen (336) due to its own bigger size than nitrogen and higher than the rest of the family members

  5. Electronegativity of phosphorus (2.1) is lower than the nitrogen but higher than the rest of the members.

  6. Phosphorus can exist in discrete tetratomic tetrahedral molecule i.e. P4.

  7. Phosphorus can exists in number of allotropic forms like

    1. White or yellow phosphorus

    2. Red phosphorus

    3. Scarlet phosphorus

    4.  - Black phosphorus

    5.   - Black phosphorus

    6. Violet phosphorus

  8. Phosphorus can show oxidation state of -3 to +5


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