|Atomic Number||: 7|
|Atomic Mass||: 14|
|Electronic Configuration||: [He]2s22p3|
|Group Number||: 15 (V A)|
|Period Number||: 2|
|Relative Abundance||: 33|
Nitrogen is most abundant gas in atmosphere i.e. 78.08% by volume. Nitrogen is a p-block element and is the first member of nitrogen family i.e. pnicogen family. Group number of nitrogen is 15 (V A) and period number 2. Nitrogen is an essential constituent of living things found in form of proteins and amino acids.
Properties of Nitrogen
- Nitrogen is a colourless, tasteless, odourless gas. Rest of family members are solids.
- Nitrogen is a non-metal sparingly soluble in water.
- Nitrogen is neither combustible nor supports combustion.
- Atomic radii of nitrogen (0.74Å) is smallest amongst its family members.
- Nitrogen has the highest 1st ionisation energy than rest of the group members.
- Nitrogen is most electronegative element than rest of the family members.
- Nitrogen shows allotropy where it exists in two solid allotropic forms (i) α-nitrogen with cubic crystalline structure and (ii) β-nitrogen with hexagonal crystalline structure .
- Nitrogen generally exhibit -3 oxidation state due to high electro negativity and small size. Besides this nitrogen can also exhibits oxidation state between -3 to +5.
- It is chemically unreactive at ordinary temperature due to N=N high bond dissociation energy (at high temperature it may react).
- N2 2N
M + N2 Metal nitride, (M=Li, Al, Si)
- N2 +3H2 2NH3
- N2 + O2 2NO
- CaC2 + N2 CaCN2 + C