Hypothetical concept of hybridization is introduced

The VBT theory fails to explain shape of the molecules. So hypothetical concept of hybridization is introduced. According to this any number of atomic orbitals of the atom which differ in energy with each other to form new orbital called hybrid orbital.

It only includesbond (along with lone pair).

V = No. of valence shell electrons in ground state to central atom.
G = No. of monovalent atom attached to central atom.
a = Magnitude of charge on anion.
c = Magnitude of charge on cation.

H value Hybridization Shape of molecule Bond angle
2 sp Linear 180
3 sp2 Plane triangular 120
4 sp3 Tetrahedral 109 28
4 dsp2 Square planar 90
5 sp3d or dsp3 Trigonal bipyramidal 120 & 90
6 sp2d2 or d2sp3 Octahedral bipyramidal 90
7 sp3d3 or d3sp3 Pentagonal bipyramidal 72 & 90

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