Chemical Bonding

                  Chemical Bonding

Cause of Chemical Bonding & Type of Bonding

Chemical Bond is defined as the force that acts between two or more atoms to hold them together as a stable molecule.

Cause of Chemical Bonding

  1. To decrease potential energy
  2. To complete octet or duplet

Type of Bonding

  1. Electrovalent or Ionic Bonding: Formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another atom.

    Conditions: large cation + small anion + low charge on ions (Also called Fajan's rule)

    Characteristics of ionic compounds

    1. Crystalline in nature
    2. Have high melting and boiling point
    3. Do not conduct electricity in solid state but conduct electricity in molten state and in aq. medium.
    4. Soluble in polar solvent like water.

  2. Covalent Bond: Formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two or more atoms, it may be single, double or triple bond.

    Polar and non-polar Covalent bonds

    XA - XB0 the bond is polar covalent bond.

    XA - XB0 the bond is non-polar covalent bond.

    Characteristics of Covalent Compounds

    1. Generally exist as gases or liquids under normal condition of temperature and pressure.
    2. Bad conductor of electricity.
    3. Insoluble in polar solvent like water but soluble in non-polar solvent.
    4. Generally low melting and boiling temperature than ionic compound.

    Co-ordinate or Dative Compound
    Formed when shared pair of electrons, is contributed by one of the two atoms. The bond is represented by an arrow

    Characteristics of Co-ordinate Compound
    Have higher melting and boiling points than purely covalent compounds.

    They are sparingly soluble in polar solvent like water but readily soluble in non-polar solvents.


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